Sodium silicate is one of various water soluble substances obtained in the form of crystals, glass, powder or aqueous solutions by chemical fusion of silica sand and soda ash. At present, there are 40 varieties of commercial sodium silicate, each with a specific use.  Sodium silicate is an essential raw material in the manufacture of washing soap, ceramic wares, flooring and metal foils, paper boards and corrugated containers, wall board etc. Vitreous silica compounds (glass bottles and tumblers) are also produced in a suction fed type blowing machine. Sodium Silicate is a colorless compound of oxides of sodium and silica. It has a range of chemical formula varying in sodium oxide (Na2O) and silicon dioxide or silica (SiO2) contents or ratios. It is soluble in water and it is prepared by reacting silica sand and sodium carbonate at a high temperature ranging from 1200oC to 1400OC. Aqueous solution of sodium silicate is called water glass. Sodium silicates are produced in the form of a variety of compounds ranging from Na2O.4SiO2 to 2Na2O.SiO2 by properly proportioning the reactants.




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Soap is obtained from saponification reaction of fat and alkali.  Various raw materials such as tallow, lard, coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil are used for soap production. It is a popular washing and cleaning product.  Laundry soaps are generally used for hygienic purposes. They are therefore, indispensable items as a daily requirement in homes, offices, schools, hospitals, restaurants and so on. 




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Egusi seeds are fat- and protein certain cucurbitaceous (squash, melon, gourd) plants. Egusi soup is a kind of soup thickened with the ground seeds and popular in West Africa, with considerable local variation Besides the seeds,water,and oil, egusi soup typically contains vegetables, other vegetables, seasonings, and meat. Typical leaf vegetables for egusi soup include bitter leaf, celosia and spinach. Typical other vegetables include tomatoes and okra. Typical seasonings include chili peppers, onions, and iru (fermented beans). Typical meats include beef, goat, fish, shrimp, or crayfish. In Nigeria, egusi is very popular among the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria, the Ibibio people and the Efik people (Calabar people) of Southern Nigeria, the Hausa of northern Nigeria and the Yoruba people, Edo people, Esan people, and Etsako people of the southwest of Nigeria. Yoruba people in general and quite notably the people of Ọṣun State – especially the Ijesha people – eat ‘Iyan and Egusi’, a pounded yam and egusi soup.A plate of pounded yam (Iyan) and egusi soup. The Nigerian Egusi soup, prepared with melon seeds, is prepared by most tribes in Nigeria in many different ways. It is known as Miyan Gushi in Hausa, Ofe Egusi in Igbo and Efo Elegusi in Yoruba.



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An important part of raising chickens is feeding - feeding makes up the major cost of production and good nutrition is reflected in the bird's performance and its products. The project is Poultry Feeds production. Poultry feed is food for farm poultry, including chickens, ducks, geese and other domestic birds. Poultry feeds are referred to as "complete" feeds, because they are designed to contain all the protein, energy, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients necessary for proper growth, egg production, and health of the birds. Feeding any other ingredients, mixed with the feed or fed separately, upsets the balance of nutrients in the "complete" feed. Feeding additional grain or supplement with the complete poultry feed is not recommended.


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A grain dehuller or grain husker is an agricultural machine used to automate the process of removing the chaff (the outer husks) of grains of rice. Throughout history, there have been numerous techniques to hull grains. The major economic importance of dehulling machine is the separating the grains from the chaff



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Cashew nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) is a reddish brown viscous liquid, having the honey comb structure of the shell of cashew nut obtained from cashew tree. The demand for the product is quite enormous in Nigeria. CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID or CNSL or Cashew Nut Oil or Cashew Shell Oil  or CNSL Oil  is a versatile by product of the Cashew industry. The nut has a shell of about 1/8 inch thickness inside which is a soft honey comb structure containing a dark reddish brown viscous liquid.  It is called CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID or CNSL. Which is the pericap fluid of the Cashew Nut.  It is often considered as the better and cheaper material for unsaturated phenols. About 30-35% CNSL is present in the shell, which amounts to approximately 67% of the nut. CNSL has innumerable applications, such as friction linings, paints, laminating resins, rubber compounding resins, cashew cements, polyurethane based polymers, surfactants, epoxy resins, foundry chemicals, and intermediates for chemical industry.  It offers much scope and varied opportunities for the development of other tailor-made polymers


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Ice cream's origins are known to reach back as far as the second century B.C., although no specific date of origin or inventor has been undisputedly credited with its discovery. It wasn't until 1660 that ice cream was made available to the general public. The Sicilian Procopio introduced a recipe blending milk, cream, butter and eggs at Café Procope, the first café in Paris. The first official account of ice cream in the New World comes from a letter written in 1744 by a guest of Maryland Governor William Bladen. The first advertisement for ice cream in this country appeared in the New York Gazette on May 12, 1777, when confectioner Philip Lenzi announced that ice cream was available "almost every day."  Now, specialty ice cream stores and unique restaurants that feature ice cream dishes have surged in popularity. These stores and restaurants are popular with those who remember the ice cream shops and soda fountains of days past, as well as with new generations of ice cream fans. Today ice cream has become a popular and profitable venture all over the continents of the earth including Africa and Nigeria is not an exemption.



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Bread is an age-long product made principally from flour.  Bread can be classified into different types depending on the recipe.  Basically, we have the following types of bread: 

The Plain (White) Bread: This is the normal or the most common bread in the market.  It accounts for over 90% of the bread available in the market.  It is devoid of additives such as milk, eggs, fruits etc.  It is usually sweet, dense and rectangular in shape (spherical shapes are also found in the market).

The Rich Bread: This bread usually contains additives such as egg, milk, fruits, etc and generally of lower sugar content than plain bread.  They come in spherical shapes and are called bread buns or rolls.  When fancifully decorated, they are called fancy bread.

Brown Bread: They are made from 100% whole-wheat flour or mixture of whole-wheat flour and white flour.  The presence of wheat bran impacts a brownish colour, hence they are called brown bread.

Dietary value of Soya Bread is very low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium. It is also a good source of Thiamin and Iron, and a very good source of Dietary Fiber, Protein, Folate, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Copper and Manganese. The increase in protein concentration indicates that supplementation of wheat flour with soybean flour would greatly improve the protein nutritional quantity of bread.



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